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Daylighting Resources - Controls

Lighting Controls

DaySwitch™ Demonstration Project
A small demonstration and evaluation of the DaySwitch™ was undertaken at the University of Oregon and at the Lighting Research Center to determine its operational issues, energy savings capabilities and building occupant acceptance. There are two reports on the DaySwitch™ demonstrations, one for each site. While the DaySwitch™ is not yet commercialized, the demonstration results are very encouraging.

Title: Productivity in buildings: The ''killer'' variables
Author(s): Leaman, A, Bordass, B
Reference: Leaman, A., and Bordass, B. (2000) Productivity in buildings: The "killer" variables, in Creating the Productive Workplace, ed: D. Clements-Croome, E. & F. N. Spon: London.
Abstract: An extensive series of post-occupancy evaluations of office buildings (known as the ‘PROBE’ studies) led to the identification of four ‘killer’ variables that have a critical influence on productivity. These are labeled ‘personal control’, ‘responsiveness to complaints’, ‘building depth’, and ‘workgroup’. Designers can influence ‘personal control’ by designing easy-to-use lighting and ventilation control systems, and openable windows. Designers can also influence ‘building depth.’ For ‘personal control’ there was a small but statistically significant correlation (r = 0.16 to 0.49) between level of individual control of the environment and self-reported productivity in seven of eleven office buildings evaluated. Results suggest that personal control is most valued when there is a source of discomfort such as glare or solar heat, i.e., when personal control enables the individual to adjust the conditions until comfort is achieved. For this reason, all windows should have some means of controlling the admission of daylight and sunlight to ensure comfort. For ‘building depth’, as buildings get deeper, the levels of satisfaction with the building and self-reported productivity decrease. The critical threshold depth appears to be about 15 m (50’) from wall to wall, when both walls are glazed. The percentage of people satisfied with the building was closely correlated with the percentage of people sitting next to windows.

Title: Specifier Report: Photosensors
Author(s): Bullough, J, Wolsey, R
Publication Organization: The Lighting Research Center
Publication URL: www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/publicationDetails.asp?id=103&type=1
Abstract: This report provides consulting engineers and lighting designers with the technical information required to make better design and specification decisions regarding photosensors. It provides detailed performance characteristics of commercially-available photosensor technology, and provides guidance on selection, installation and adjustment. This report is part of the Lighting Research Center’s National Lighting Product Information Program (NLPIP).

Title: Tips for daylighting with windows: Sensors and controls (pages 8-1 to 8-7)
Author(s): O'Connor, J, Lee, ES, Rubinstein, F, Selkowitz, S
Publication Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Publication URL: http://windows.lbl.gov/pub/designguide/section8.pdf
Abstract: A wide-ranging discussion of the lighting control strategies available to the designer, and what each one can achieve. The human effects are described, as well as the energy-saving potential of each option. The capabilities and suitability of lighting controls hardware, such as occupancy sensors, photosensors, manual switches, and timed controls are discussed, along with design strategies such as zoning, sensor positioning, the location of switches, and the choice of open- or closed-loop control.

Title: Design Brief: Lighting Controls
Publication Organization: Energy Design Resources
Publication URL: http://www.energydesignresources.com/docs/db-01-lightingcontrols.pdf
Abstract: This document discusses different strategies to use lighting controls to achieve comfort, higher productivity, and energy savings to increase the value of commercial buildings. Different design options using a variety of controls or a combination thereof are introduced and analyzed. A good overall analysis of different types of lighting controls.

California Energy Commission
Connecticut Light & Power
Efficiency Vermont
Lighting Research Center
North Carolina Daylighting Consortium
Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
US Department of Energy