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Daylighting Resources - Design Tools

Guides for Daylighting Schools

Title: Patterns to Daylight Schools for People and Sustainability (2010)  
Authors: Russell Leslie, Aaron Smith, Leora Radetsky, Mariana Figueiro, and Lisa Yue
Publication URL: /programs/daylighting/pdf/DaylightingPatternBook_Final.pdf
Description: The latest pattern book by LRC authors, sponsored by the US Green Building Council, presents model designs for implementing daylighting into school classrooms, corridors, and gymnasiums. With emphasis on human health impact and other daylight metrics, this book compares cost, comfort, visual environment, and energy use among well-known daylighting techniques.

Title: Guide for Daylighting Schools (2004)
Developers: Innovative Design for the Daylight Dividends Program
Publication URL: /programs/daylighting/pdf/guidelines.pdf
Description: A comprehensive brochure addressing key design considerations for using daylighting in schools.

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Energy Calculations

Title: California Energy Commission 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 24)
Author(s): G. William Pennington, Jon Leber
Reference: G. William Pennington, Jon Leber
Publication Organization: California Energy Commission
Publication URL: http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2005standards/index.html
Abstract: The California Building Code establishes building energy efficiency standards for new construction (including requirements for entire new buildings, additions, alterations, and in non-residential buildings, repairs). The Code requires that office buildings use no more than 1.1w ft2 for lighting; this figure is very difficult to achieve without the use of 'adjustment factors' which take account of the presence of lighting control systems, including daylight linking. Large windows with high transmittance glazing allow adjustment factors of up to 40% to be used. The next update to California's energy efficiency standards for residential and non-residential buildings (Title 24, Part 6) is expected to be adopted by the Commission by July 1, 2003, and go into effect in 2005.

Title: Retail skylighting knowhow
Publication Organization: Design Lights Consortium
Publication URL: http://www.designlights.org/downloads/skylighting_Retail.pdf
Abstract: This guide shows how to use skylights in retail environments to enhance a store''s appearance, attract and retain shoppers, and produce savings on lighting energy costs. The guide is illustrated with sample retail layouts, and describes how skylights can be integrated with electric lighting and lighting controls to maximize energy savings. Estimated energy savings are given for each skylighting option. Systems optimized for the northeastern United States are described in detail, and the guide cites research that finds evidence of increased retail sales in stores with skylights.

Title: Tips for daylighting with Windows: Cost benefit analysis (pages 11-1 to 11-26)
Author(s): O'Connor, J, Lee, ES, Rubinstein, F, Selkowitz, S
Publication Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Publication URL: http://windows.lbl.gov/pub/designguide/section11.pdf
Abstract: An in-depth guide to methods for calculating energy savings and payback periods for various types of sunlight shading and lighting control system. Air-conditioning savings are considered, as well as lighting energy savings. Graphical methods are used, and these help to clarify the concepts and principles of daylighting. Step-by-step processes can be followed to carry out a variety of different cost benefit analyses.

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Skylight Calculations

Title: Skylighting Guidelines (Chapter 8)
Publication Organization: Heschong Mahone Group, for the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication URL:
Abstract: This report gives practical design guidance on the use of skylights. It gives numerical information on illumination patterns and likely energy savings by region, glazing type, building type and control type, all presented in graphical form. This report is targeted towards designers and building owners in four Pacific-Northwest states: Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana. It reviews the climate of the region, differing energy-code requirements in the separate states, and common building practices that affect the specification of skylights for commercial buildings.

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Window Designs

Title: Effect of window size and sunlight presence on glare
Author(s): Boubekri, M, Boyer, LL
Reference: Boubekri, M. and L. L. Boyer (1992), Effect of Window Size and Sunlight Presence on Glare, Lighting Research and Technology, 24 (2): 69-74
Abstract: Occupants’ assessments of glare from south-facing windows were found to be lower than predicted by daylight glare index calculations. The authors ascribe this difference to the presence of direct sunlight, and to the pleasant rural view from the window. Daylight glare varied according to window area, reaching a maximum when the windows occupied 50% of the facade. Fifty percent is a typical value for many commercial buildings, so the results suggest that current daylighting practice may be suboptimal with regard to glare.

Title: Glare from windows -3. Using the glare index in daylighting design
Author(s): Hopkinson, R
Reference: Hopkinson, R. G. (1971) Glare from windows - 3 using the glare index in daylighting design. Construction Research and Development Journal 3(1), 23-28.
Abstract: Interior window reveals can reduce glare from windows. Reveals are usually sections of light-colored angled wall surrounding a window, and are used to create an area of intermediate luminance between the window and the interior wall. A window surrounded by a reveal of one-sixth of its linear dimension can reduce glare by up to two points on a 12-point scale ranging from 16 (imperceptible) to 25 (intolerable).

Title: Innovative daylighting: Review of systems and evaluation methods
Author(s): Littlefair, PJ
Reference: Littlefair, P.J. (1990). Innovative daylighting: review of systems and evaluation methods. Lighting Research and Technology 22(1), 1-17.
Abstract: A survey of advanced daylighting technologies, including sun-gathering heliostat-lightpipe systems, light shelves, prismatic and holographic glazing. This report finds that heliostat systems are ineffective for general illumination; a 2m (6’) diameter mirror would produce only as much useful light as seven 1.5m (5’) fluorescent tubes, and would only work when the sun shines. Light shelves are found to be effective at increasing the light level at the back of a room, but only when the sun shines; otherwise they reduce the total amount of daylight in the room. Blinds are still required in addition to light shelves, to block low-angle winter sun. In general, light-gathering and redirecting systems are found to reduce the total amount of daylight entering a space, although they subdue glare from direct sunlight, and redirect diffuse light onto surfaces around the window to reduce window glare.

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California Energy Commission
Connecticut Light & Power
Efficiency Vermont
Lighting Research Center
North Carolina Daylighting Consortium
Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
US Department of Energy