Lighting Research Center

Advancing the effective use of light for society and the environment

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DELTA Portfolio
DELTA Portfolio: 450 South Salina Street, Office Building

Originally constructed in 1911 as a furniture store, this building was gutted and remodeled to house government and professional offices in 1992-93. Occupancy sensors control most lighting systems, which include 2'x4' troffers with parabolic louvers and T8 lamps, cove uplights with long twin-tube fluorescent lamps, and wall washers with compact fluorescent lamps.
DELTA Portfolio: A&P Food Market

Good lighting can affect supermarket operating costs and customers and employee satisfaction. This store in Old Lyme, Connecticut, updated its lighting to improve customer appeal and save energy. The new design eliminates incandescent lighting entirely and instead uses T8 fluorescent lighting, with double-ended compact metal halide and compact fluorescent lamps for specialty areas. Automatic controls make the most of daylight and lower light levels at night.
DELTA Portfolio: Ballston Spa High School

DELTA examined lighting systems for three types of spaces in this new high school: the cafeteria, the library, and the art rooms. Lighting objectives included providing good task visibility and visual comfort, minimizing energy use, and providing flexibility and visual interest in the lighting. This project demonstrates that indirect lighting promotes visual comfort, designers should take into account the presence of obstructions when planning the layout of luminaires, lighting controls must be easily accessible to authorized personnel, and luminaires should be designed to resist abuse.
DELTA Portfolio: DeGraff St. Industrial Center, Office and Small Manufacturing

The DeGraff St. Industrial Center is an old mill that has been renovated into office and small manufacturing space. The lighting uses T8 fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts. Galvanized steel stovepipe incorporated into light valances helps to retain the industrial character of the mill. This project takes advantage of plentiful daylight.
DELTA Portfolio: Highway Rest Areas

DELTA evaluated the exterior and interior lighting at the newly expanded Clifton Park Rest Area on the I-87 Adirondack Northway in Upstate New York. The facility, which is open 24 hours a day, has parking, picnic areas, a dog walking area, and a pavilion. Inside the pavilion are a tourist information counter, restrooms, vending machines, and a State Police Station. This publication describes the lighting, discusses the public's reaction to the lighting, and quantifies the energy savings and environmental impact of the lighting.
DELTA Portfolio: Hudson Valley Community College

Hudson Valley Community College in Troy, New York, is creating new learning environments that integrate computers into the classroom. This DELTA publication evaluates a lighting scheme for computer classrooms having two different arrangements of computers: terminals arranged in rows across the room and terminals arranged around the perimeter of the room. Design objectives included making light levels flexible while minimizing cost, energy use, and unwanted reflections on computer screens.
DELTA Portfolio: Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School

This school's lighting contributes to its light, airy atmosphere. Energy-efficient products and automatic switching keep energy costs down while integrated windows and skylights give students and teachers a connection to the outdoors. In the gymnasium, uplight fixtures use a combination of metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.
DELTA Portfolio: McLean Village, Independent Living Facility for Seniors

McLean Village, an upscale independent living facility for seniors, wants its lighting to be sensitive to the special visual needs of its older residents while keeping energy and maintenance costs low. Designers crafted a lighting system that compensates
DELTA Portfolio: Prudential Healthcare, Office Building

In this medical and dental claims processing center, designers wanted to provide low, balanced brightness for viewing VDTs; keep costs low and maintenance simple; and provide a pleasant, appealing environment. Linear fluorescent uplighting, individual task lights, and pliable sconces provide some of the lighting for the open office space with partitioned workstations, conference rooms, mailroom, and cafeteria.
DELTA Portfolio: SONY Disc Manufacturing Center, Manufacturing Facility

Sony's advanced manufacturing facility for digital optical disks requires lighting designed for good task visibility and visual comfort for its employees. The project includes lighting for clean room manufacturing, packaging, warehousing, and shipping/receiving areas. Energy-efficient lighting products reduce energy consumption while creating bright, visually stimulating spaces to help keep shift workers alert before sunrise.
DELTA Portfolio: SONY Disc Manufacturing, Administration and Support Spaces

The lighting in the administration and support space of this huge facility was designed to provide task visibility with a minimum of glare, while enhancing the architectural design and creating visual interest. Areas discussed include open offices, corridors, the dining area, and a wellness center. Many of these areas utilize daylight controls.
DELTA Portfolio: Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Office Building

This electric utility's customer service offices feature a direct/indirect T8 fluorescent lighting system using dimmable ballasts and photosensor controls. Workstations have flexible-arm compact fluorescent task lights for supplemental lighting. The building envelope features light shelves, interior sails, and skylights.
DELTA Portfolio: Saratoga Medical Associates

For this project, DELTA evaluated the existing lighting in five spaces in a suite of medical offices: the reception and waiting area, one nurses' station, two examination rooms, and one doctor's office. DELTA then installed and evaluated new lighting in those same spaces. This publication details the new lighting and provides the results of the two evaluations. Features of the new lighting system include flexibility, visibility, and visual comfort and appeal; elimination of the need for supplementary lighting; and use of energy-efficient technologies.
DELTA Portfolio: South Mall Towers, Senior Residence

This high-rise urban residence for low- to moderate-income seniors and disabled adults uses new and retrofit age-sensitive lighting to provide a safe and comfortable environment. The lighting makes the most of the visual capabilities of seniors at minimal cost for maintenance and energy use. Designs include lighting for one-bedroom and alcove apartments, as well as common areas such as the lobby, community room, and corridors.
DELTA Portfolio: Staples Distribution Center

High-density warehousing and distribution center with low-energy lighting controlled by occupancy sensors.
Daylighting for Whole Foods Market DELTA Portfolio: Daylighting in Whole Foods Market

DELTA evaluated a newly-built Whole Foods Market in Yonkers, New York, with skylights, clerestory windows, and a roof monitor that provide daylight. The store’s daylighting allows the building management system to turn off half of the general lighting during the day.
LED Lighting in a Campus Building DELTA Portfolio: LED Lighting in a Campus Building

LEDs illuminate this new building at Siena College in Loudonville, NY. DELTA evaluated classrooms, offices, meeting rooms, lounges, hallways, stairs, and restrooms.
DELTA Snapshots
DELTA Snapshots: Private Office Lighting Controls

Properly designed and installed lighting controls can reduce energy costs and increase employee satisfaction. This Snapshot gives the results of a study evaluating employee satisfaction with automatic and manual lighting controls, the effect of manual lighting control accessibility on users, and the effectiveness of automatic and manual lighting controls for saving energy. Manual dimming, on/off control strategies, and occupancy sensors in private offices are all considered.
DELTA Snapshots: Supermarket Lighting, Issue 2

Good lighting in a supermarket is critical for showing the freshness and quality of food. This installation in the produce area of a supermarket features a new T8 fluorescent lamp with enhanced color rendering, higher lumen maintenance, and longer life than conventional T8 lamps.
DELTA Snapshots: Compact Fluorescent Retrofit for Incandescent Downlights, Issue 3

Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) retrofit kits can replace incandescent downlights, providing significant savings in reduced energy use and relamping frequency. This Snapshot details the relighting of a public library's circulation desk with a new 20-W CFL retrofit kit that gives the staff the illuminance they need without distracting glare. Another benefit of the new system is that it does not produce excessive heat on the circulation desk as the old incandescents did.
DELTA Snapshots: Corridor Lighting, Issue 1

The Connecticut Children's Medical Center wants its lighting to provide visual variety for the hospital's patients and their parents. In addition, the lighting must reinforce the architectural design, focus attention on the hospital's artwork rather than the luminaires, minimize glare, and provide good color rendering. This Snapshot illustrates a clever way to illuminate a hospital corridor using indirect lighting.
DELTA Snapshots: Electrodeless Lighting

Electrodeless lamps can reduce relamping requirements and improve color rendering in exterior environments. This project retrofits the lighting system in Union Square Park in New York City. A New York State utility replaced the old system, which used 100-W high-pressure sodium lamps, with an electrodeless fluorescent lamp system that reduces relamping frequency and improves color rendering and visibility of people in the park.
DELTA Snapshots: Exit Signs

The total annual energy cost for exit signs in the U.S. using incandescent lamps is approximately $1 billion. Switching to ENERGY STAR-labeled LED exit signs will reduce energy and relamping costs, plus the pollution power plants produce. This Snapshot profiles exit sign installations in the U.S. Post Office in Eugene, Oregon, and at the Lighting Research Center in Watervliet, N.Y.
DELTA Snapshots: Gas Station Canopy Lighting

The recent trend toward increasingly bright lighting for gas station has caused drivers, residents of surrounding areas, and local officials to complain about excessive glare and light trespass. This Snapshot shows how gas stations can provide satisfactory light levels for their customers at night while reducing glare and light trespass. Other lighting objectives included attracting customers, helping customers feel safe, and making the station visible from a distance.
DELTA Snapshots: Home Office Lighting

Increasing numbers of people work from their homes. With this trend comes a need for higher levels of ambient lighting without reflected glare on computer screens. This Snapshot describes comfortable and flexible lighting appropriate for a home office with minimal electricity use and glare and at minimal installation cost.
DELTA Snapshots: Lighting for Dormitories

Dormitory rooms can be dark, but the risk of fire associated with tungsten-halogen ("quartz") lamp torchieres has prompted many colleges in North America to ban their use in dormitories. Ambient lighting can be produced safely and efficiently with torchieres and task lights that use compact fluorescent lamps instead. This Snapshot describes a dormitory room lighted with an ENERGY STAR torchiere supplemented with a compact fluorescent task light.
DELTA Snapshots: Lindt Chocolate Shop, Retail Lighting

Lighting in retail applications must entice people to enter a store and direct attention to the merchandise. Ideally it should also use energy efficiently and avoid damaging the merchandise with excessive heat. This Snapshot shows how one retail store--an upscale chocolate shop--has balanced the need to attract attention with the need for energy-efficient lighting. Light from soffits and bright paint colors make the walls look cheerful, trackheads add sparkle to merchandise packaging, and parabolic troffers provide general lighting throughout the store.
DELTA Snapshots: Mohonasen High School, Multimedia Auditorium

This publication evaluates two basic lighting strategies for multimedia auditoriums, which support many activities in schools and other venues. The project also demonstrates how these basic strategies might need to be modified to meet a number of lighting objectives: rendering speakers' facial features in a flattering manner, making the space look pleasant, providing illumination for audience members to read and take notes and for speakers to see their audiences, and minimizing illuminance and reflections on projection screens and monitors.
DELTA Snapshots: Office Lighting

Indirect lighting for open-plan offices is an effective approach to providing a comfortable, low-glare office environment. This Snapshot features a creative solution that is flexible and functional. The application provides uniform illumination throughout the open office area, good color quality for graphic layout work, and a consistent visual design that ties all work areas together. The application uses long-life lamps for reduced maintenance.
DELTA Snapshots: Outdoor Entry Lighting

Carefully selected outdoor luminaires can reduce energy use, improve lighting quality, and provide a sense of security for homeowners. This Snapshot shows how changes to the outdoor entry lighting improved the appearance and security of a row house in a historic neighborhood in Albany, New York. Lighting objectives in this installation included eliminating dark areas on the entry stoop, making it easier to see the lock at night, reducing glare, providing light at dusk without leaving lights on all day, and reducing energy use.
Field Test DELTA Snapshots
Delta Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Sensor-Controlled Bi-level Lighting for Parking Lots

This guide summarizes results from LRC field demonstrations of several sensor-based dimming strategies: various delay times for dimming onset, various dim levels, and grouped vs. independent control of parking lot luminaires. It also provides guidance on how to select and set up these types of systems.
Delta Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Sensor-Controlled Lighting in Multi-Family Corridors

This guide shows results from a field demonstration of sensor-controlled, bi-level corridor lighting. Occupants had positive feedback, and considerable energy savings were achieved. Monitoring results from 14 other apartment buildings enabled energy savings calculations comparing market rate vs. below market rate buildings. As energy codes move toward increased adoption of sensor-controlled lighting, these results show how to use bi-level lighting to improve energy efficiency without occupant dissatisfaction.
Alternative Technologies for Construction Lighting Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Alternative Technologies for Construction Lighting

Although conventional construction lighting often consists of strings of incandescent lamps in a simple cage, several alternative lighting technologies are now available that save energy and are acceptable to construction site workers. In this publication, the LRC evaluates conventional construction lighting and three alternative technologies: screw-base compact fluorescent lamps, screw-base LED lamps, and a low voltage LED system. This study compares worker acceptance, installation and maintenance, and energy performance of the four lighting technologies.
Benefits of Improved Uniformity with Parking Lot Lighting Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Benefits of Improved Uniformity with LED Parking Lot Lighting

Outdoor lighting is a rapidly growing market for LED luminaires. LEDs have the potential to efficiently provide more uniform illumination compared with conventional high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires. Improving the uniformity is expected to result in better occupant acceptance and ratings of safety and visibility, potentially allowing for reductions in light level and energy use. The LRC performed a demonstration to test the relationship between uniformity and occupant acceptance in parking lots.
Finelite Classroom Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Classroom Lighting

This publication summarizes field research from the demonstration of an integrated classroom lighting system installed in seven schools in New York State. The system addresses the lighting needs of both traditional instructional technology (chalkboards) and new audio-visual presentation technology. The publication includes teacher surveys and energy calculations.
Glazing with Integral Honeycomb Baffles Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Glazing with Integral Honeycomb Baffles

DELTA evaluated a glazing product used in skylights at a contemporary art museum. The glazing product integrates translucent honeycomb baffles between two panes of clear glass. Results are presented in terms of energy savings, daylight measurements, maintenance, and museum visitor feedback.
LED Accent Lighting in a Community Art Gallery Field Test DELTA Snapshots: LED Accent Lighting in a Community Art Gallery

Conventional accent lighting for galleries typically consists of aimable track heads with incandescent halogen light sources such as PAR or MR16 lamps. Lately, several manufacturers have developed LED lighting systems for art galleries to provide accent lighting while reducing energy use. The objective of this study was to evaluate an LED track head designed for accent lighting and compare its performance to conventional accent lighting and to the existing diffuse lighting.
Field Test DELTA Snapshots: LED Lighting in Freezer Cases

Supermarket freezers use interior case lighting to make products visible and to capture the attention of shoppers. For this publication, the Lighting Research Center evaluated a freezer case with prototype LED lighting side-by-side with a freezer case with standard T8 fluorescent lamps. Several LED conditions were tested, including full output and dimmed to approximately 80% output. Results from the study include energy use, product sales, and shoppers’ preference for each technology.
LED Street Lighting Field Test DELTA Snapshots: LED Street Lighting

Light-emitting diode (LED) technology has matured to the extent that it can be used for street and area lighting. Specifiers can now weigh the benefits of this technology relative to conventional high intensity discharge (HID) light sources. Some claimed benefits of LEDs include long life, improved uniformity, reduced maintenance, promotion of vision at low light levels, and energy savings. To investigate several of these claims, DELTA evaluated an installation of LED street lighting.
LEDs for Construction Lighting Field Test DELTA Snapshots: LEDs for Construction Lighting

With alternative lighting technologies increasingly available for construction lighting, the LRC examined a low voltage, direct current power distribution system comprised of LED luminaires. This lighting system was installed at the construction site of the gymnasium at New York City’s new Police Academy campus. The LRC evaluated photometric conditions, worker acceptance, and installation and maintenance of the construction lighting system.
Field Test DELTA Snapshots: Staircase Lighting

Staircase lighting typically remains on at full output despite low occupancy rates. This publication shows energy and photometric conditions before and after retrofit with Occu-smart® luminaires. These luminaires use a built-in occupancy sensor to automatically dim the lights to a low level when the space is unoccupied. A high-rise residential installation is featured. Energy savings are compared with results in a Manhattan office building.
Field Test DELTA
Demand-Response, Load-Shedding Ballast System Demand-Response, Load-Shedding Ballast System

Demand-response building systems are an important component of electricity load management programs. Until recently, the inclusion of lighting into any demand response strategy has involved turning off banks of lights manually or through a building management system with complicated distribution and/or control wiring. With its partners, the LRC developed, demonstrated and evaluated a cost-effective, load-shedding ballast system to command the lighting to dim at times of peak electric demand, without installing additional wiring.
Field Test DELTA: Integrated Skylight Luminaire

High-bay warehouses, light industrial facilities, and big box retail stores offer the opportunity to save energy and improve occupant satisfaction by admitting daylight through their roofs. Prototypes of an Integrated Skylight Luminaire (ISL) were installed in a working warehouse and analyzed for energy savings and lighting quality. Each ISL includes a skylight, fluorescent luminaires, and a self-commissioning control system that automatically dims or switches the lamps in response to daylight. The ISL’s design and field performance are documented.
Field Test DELTA: Photovoltaic Lighting Retrofit Kit for Bus Shelters

The DELTA research team field tested an installation of a photovoltaic (PV) lighting retrofit kit for bus shelters on Long Island, N.Y. This solar-powered system provides a backlight for large advertising signs. PV cells charge an array of batteries, eliminating the need for an external electricity supply. This field test evaluated the system's performance over an extended period of time and gauged public reaction to the system at night.
Field Test Delta Field Test DELTA: T5 Fluorescent High-Bay Luminaires and Wireless Lighting Controls

The DELTA research team field-tested T5 fluorescent luminaires and wireless motion-sensor lighting controls at a distribution center warehouse in Albany, N.Y. The field test in this high-bay environment included illuminance measurements, energy savings calculations, verification of system component operation, and worker feedback.
Daylight-Harvesting Switch Field Test DELTA: Daylight-Harvesting Switch

The DaySwitch® is a simple daylight-harvesting switch designed to turn off electric lights when plentiful daylight is available. The LRC developed the DaySwitch, collaborated with manufacturing partners to build prototypes, and demonstrated the device in a wide range of locations throughout the Rensselaer campus. This publication summarizes the product features and demonstration results.
Field Test Delta Field Test DELTA: Post-Top Photovoltaic Pathway Luminaire

DELTA field-tested 24 post-top photovoltaic-powered ("PV") luminaires with LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The luminaires were installed at three public, outdoor sites in the Catskill Mountains region of upstate New York: Swan Lake Park, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts, and the Village of Woodridge. DELTA tested the luminaires to verify system performance, to evaluate people's acceptance of the system, and to quantify photometric performance and energy savings.
Mogul Screw-base LED Replacement Lamps for High Bay Environments Mogul Screw-base LED Replacement Lamps for High Bay Environments

For spaces such as warehouses and shops, conventional lighting often consists of high bay luminaires operating high-intensity discharge (HID) sources. These high-wattage lamps are typically designed to fit into larger, “mogul” sockets. Mogul screw-base light-emitting diode (LED) replacement lamps are available that allow existing luminaires to be reused. These lamps have the potential to save substantial energy, as well as reduce maintenance and improve color characteristics. DELTA researchers evaluated a high bay service facility retrofit with mogul-base LED replacements.

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