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Lighting Research Center
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Troy, N.Y. -  5/10/2012

Transportation Lighting Alliance Study from LRC Explores Pedestrian Safety at Roundabouts

LRC Welcomes Vehicle Maker Audi to Research Alliance in 2012

Roundabouts are becoming more and more common along our roads. These circular intersections can help ease traffic flow and reduce the severity of accidents, but they can also present some challenges to drivers and pedestrians, because they are still relatively new. Pedestrian crosswalks aren’t always in their familiar locations, and drivers may not always know where to look for pedestrians waiting to cross the roundabout. Lighting, both on vehicles and mounted on poles around the roundabout, can be important tools for pedestrian safety at roundabouts.

This is the topic of the newest Transportation Lighting Alliance (TLA) report from the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. LRC senior research scientist John Bullough and senior research specialist Nicholas Skinner compared pedestrian visibility under different lighting conditions in a two part study. They first used photometric lighting simulations to estimate the visibility of pedestrians by drivers in lighted and unlighted areas. Their analyses included conventional static headlamp systems found on most cars today, as well as advanced headlamp technologies that might be more common on cars of tomorrow. These included high-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps with wider patterns, and intelligent headlamps that could swivel toward pedestrians or other hazards to make them more visible.

"Teela," the TLA's pedestrian targetBullough and Skinner estimated visibility using the relative visual performance (RVP) model. RVP predicts the speed and accuracy of seeing as a function of light level, target contrast, size and driver age. Although they found that some combinations of headlamps and roadway lighting reduced the contrast between pedestrians and their backgrounds, making them harder to see, they also found that HID and intelligent headlamps helped maintain high contrast and high visibility whether roadway lighting was present or not.

To then find out whether the RVP calculations had practical value, the LRC researchers conducted a nighttime field experiment, re-creating the virtual environments they studied in a real-world setting. The experimental targets were plywood silhouettes of a toddler, named Teela in honor of the TLA. Study participants viewed a display screen and, when signaled, were asked to look up along the outdoor scene for Teela and identify whether she was walking toward the left or right. Computers recorded the participants response times. Bullough and Skinner found that the measured response times were highly correlated with the calculated visibility values using the RVP model. The correlation suggests that photometric simulations can be used to assess the practical value of new forms of vehicle headlamps in combination with roadway lighting.

The TLA report, “Benefits of Intelligent Headlamp Technologies to Pedestrian Safety at Roundabouts,” is available at http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/transportation/TLA/pdf/TLA-2012-01.pdf.

TLA members include Automotive Lighting, Hella, OSRAM SYLVANIA, Philips Lighting, Visteon and new member, Audi, who joined the TLA in 2012. The LRC is pleased to welcome Audi to the TLA, a collaboration among manufacturers and the LRC to perform research and educational activities related to visibility and driver comfort under vehicle lighting.


About the Lighting Research Center
The Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is the world's leading center for lighting research and education. Established in 1988 by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the LRC has been pioneering research in solid-state lighting, light and health, transportation lighting and safety, and energy efficiency for nearly 30 years. LRC lighting scientists with multidisciplinary expertise in research, technology, design, and human factors, collaborate with a global network of leading manufacturers and government agencies, developing innovative lighting solutions for projects that range from the Boeing 787 Dreamliner to U.S. Navy submarines to hospital neonatal intensive-care units. LRC researchers conduct independent, third-party testing of lighting products in the LRC's state of the art photometric laboratories, the only university lighting laboratories accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP Lab Code: 200480-0). In 1990, the LRC became the first university research center to offer graduate degrees in lighting and today, offers a M.S. in lighting and a Ph.D. to educate future leaders in lighting. With 35 full-time faculty and staff, 15 graduate students, and a 30,000 sq. ft. laboratory space, the LRC is the largest university-based lighting research and education organization in the world.

About Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, is America’s first technological research university. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in engineering; the sciences; information technology and web sciences; architecture; management; and the arts, humanities, and social sciences. Rensselaer faculty advance research in a wide range of fields, with an emphasis on biotechnology, nanotechnology, computational science and engineering, data science, and the media arts and technology. The Institute has an established record of success in the transfer of technology from the laboratory to the marketplace, fulfilling its founding mission of applying science “to the common purposes of life.”