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Lighting Research Center
Transportation Lighting Reference List

In press

  • Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, L. C. Radetsky, N. P. Skinner and A. Bierman. [In press.] Toward the development of standards for yellow flashing lights used in work zones. Lighting Research and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153516670935
  • Bullough, J. D. and X. Liu. [In press.] Luminance measurement and visual performance analyses of raised pavement markers. Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 7-11.
  • Kersavage, K., N. P. Skinner, J. D. Bullough, P. M. Garvey, E. T. Donnell and M. S. Rea. [In press.] Determination of optimal intensities and periods for vehicle-mounted warning lights using field experiments. Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 7-11.
  • Bullough, J. D. and N. P. Skinner. [In press.] High visibility reflective sign sheeting materials: Field and computational evaluations of visual performance. Transport. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2016.1230889

2018

  • Bullough, J. D. 2018. LEDs in automotive lighting. In Nitride Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Technologies, and Applications, 2nd edition (pp. 647-658). J.-J. Huang, H.-C. Kuo and S.-C. Shen, editors. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing.

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

  • McColgan, Michele W. November/December 2004. Defining light pollution. IMSA Journal 42(6):34-37. (FULL TEXT AVAILABLE)
  • Van Derlofske, John. July 2004. Research matters: Light emitting diode headlamps right around the bend? Lighting Design + Application (LD+A) 34(7):9-11
  • Bullough, John. February 2004. Research matters: Seeing the light (through the haze). Lighting Design + Application (LD+A) 34(2):8-10
  • Van Derlofske, J. 2004. Seeing the big picture. Light. Des. Appl. 34(2):27-33.
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough, P. Dee, J. Chen, and Y. Akashi. 2004. Headlamp parameters and glare. Lighting SP-1875. Society of Automotive Engineers. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D., and J. Van Derlofske. 2004. Headlamp illumination and glare: An approach to predicting peripheral visibility. Lighting SP-1875. Society of Automotive Engineers. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D., and M. S. Rea. 2004. Visual performance under mesopic conditions: Consequences for roadway lighting. Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
  • McColgan, M. W., and J. Van Derlofske. 2004. Comparison of veiling luminance for roadway lighting. Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
  • Zhou, Y., Van Derlofske, J., Chen, J. and P. Dee. 2004. Photometric evaluation of LED traffic signals. Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
  • Van Derlofske, J. and J. D. Bullough. 2004. Spectral effects of high-intensity discharge automotive forward lighting on visual performance (reprint of SAE paper 2003-01-0559). In Recent Developments in Automotive Safety Technology, PT-119 (pp. 417-424). D. J. Holt, editor. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova and A. Bierman. 2004. A proposed unified system of photometry. Lighting Research and Technology 36(2): 85-111.

2003

  • Rea, Mark S., Bullough, John D., Freyssinier, Jean-Paul, Bierman, Andrew. 2003. X (A system of mesopic photometry based on reaction time measurement). Proceedings of the CIE Symposium '02: Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Light and Color Perception and Measurement
  • Bullough, John D. April 2003. Research recap: Visibility in a flash? Lighting Design + Application (LD+A) 33(4).
  • Bullough, John D., Freyssinier, Jean-Paul, Rea, Mark S. April 2003. Color my world: The spectral effects of lighting. Lighting Design and Application 33(4):62-63
  • Bullough, John D. September 2003. Research matters: Safe and sound....with lighting? Lighting Design and Application (LD+A) 33(9):10-11
  • Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Zhou, Yutao; Ramamurthy, Vasuhda; Bierman, Andrew; Bullough, John D.; Narendran, Nadarajah. 5-7 August, 2003. Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diodes for Signage Applications. Third International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Proceedings of SPIE 5187:309-317
  • Van Derlofske, J. 2003. Research matters: Glare - A moving target on the roadway. Light. Des. Appl. 33(12):17-19.
  • Bullough, J. D., J. Van Derlofske, P. Dee, Chen Jie, and Y. Akashi. 2003. An Investigation of Headlamp Glare: Intensity, Spectrum and Size, DOT HS 809 672. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  • Nakamura, Y., and Y. Akashi. 2003. The effect of immediate background size on target detection. J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 32(2):74-87.
  • Bullough, J., and J. Van Derlofske. June 2003. Shedding light on glare. OE Magazine 3(6):17-18.
  • Van Derlofske, J. May 2003. Research recap: HID headlamps - Balancing visibility vs. glare. Light. Des. Appl. 33(5):10-13.
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough and C. M. Hunter. 2003. Visual benefits of high-intensity discharge automotive forward lighting (reprint of SAE paper 2002-01-0259). In Advances in Lighting Technology, PT-98 (pp. 249-254). D. J. Holt, editor. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Van Derlofske, J., and J. D. Bullough. 2003. Spectral effects of high-intensity discharge automotive forward lighting on visual performance. 2003 SAE World Congress, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D., J. Van Derlofske, C. R. Fay, and P. Dee, Jr.. 2003. Discomfort glare from headlamps: Interactions among spectrum, control of glaze and background light level. 2003 SAE World Congress, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Van Derlofske, J., and T. A. Hough. 2003. Flux propagation in light pipe illumination systems. Design of efficient illumination systems: Proceedings of SPIE, Bellingham, WA: The International Society for Optical Engineering.
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. Bullough, P. Dee, J. Chen, and Y. Akashi. 2003. Effects of vehicle forward lighting spectrum on glare. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 10. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.
  • Van Derlofske, J., P. R. Boyce, and C. M. Hunter. 2003. Evaluation of in-pavement flashing warning lights on pedestrian crosswalk safety. IMSA Journal 41(3):20, 54.
  • Huang, M. K., J. D. Bullough, P. R. Boyce, and A. Bierman. 2003. Detection and identification of LED traffic signals by protan observers. Transportation Research Record 1844:52-58.
  • Bullough, J., J. Van Derlofske, P. Dee, J. Chen, and Y. Akashi. 2003. Impact of headlight glare on peripheral visibility. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 10. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.
  • Akashi, Y., and J. Neches. 2003. The effects of task load on peripheral target detection. Proceedings of the 25th session of the CIE, Vienna: CIE Central Bureau.
  • Akashi, Y., P. Dee, J. Chen, J. Van Derlofske, and J. Bullough. 2003. Interaction between fixed roadway lighting and vehicle forward lighting. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 10. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.
  • Bullough, J. D., Z. Fu+ and J. Van Derlofske. 2003. Discomfort and disability glare from halogen and HID headlamp systems (reprint of SAE paper 2002-01-0010). In Advances in Lighting Technology, PT-98 (pp. 243-247). D. J. Holt, editor. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D. 2003. Are yellow traffic signals brighter than they need to be? (reprinted from Lighting Design and Application). International Municipal Signal Association Journal 41(3): 51-53.

2002

  • Do High Intensity Discharge Headlamps Cause Glare? 2002. Lighting Research Center
  • Lingard, R., and Rea Mark. 2002. Off-axis detection at mesopic light levels in a driving context. J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31(1):33-39.
  • Akashi, Y., and M. Rea. 2002. Peripheral detection while driving under a mesopic level. J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31(1):85-94.
  • Bullough, J. D. July 2002. Interpreting outdoor luminaire cutoff classification. Light. Des. Appl. 32(7): 44-46.
  • Bullough, J. D. 2002. Research recap: Are yellow traffic signals brighter than they need to be? Light. Des. Appl. 32(12): 18-21.
  • Sundarum, Swapna; Akashi, Yukio; McColgan, Michele. 2002. A design metric to evaluate sky glow Lux Pacifica 2002
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough, and C. M. Hunter. 2002. Visual benefits of high-intensity discharge automotive forward lighting. SAE Technical Paper Series #(2002-01-0259).
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough, and C. M. Hunter. 2002. Evaluation of high-density discharge automotive forward lighting. SAE Technical Paper Series #(2001-01-0298).
  • McColgan, M. W., J. Van Derlofske, J. Bullough, and I. Shakir. 2002. Subjective color preferences of common road sign materials under headlamp bulb illumination. SAE Technical Paper Series #(2002-01-0261).
  • Van Derlofske, J. F., and M. McColgan. 2002. White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting. Solid State Lighting II: Proceedings of SPIE, Bellingham, WA: The International Society for Optical Engineering.
  • Bullough, J. D. 2002. Modeling peripheral visibility under headlamp illumination (paper # VIS2002-38). Transportation Research Board 16th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, Iowa City, IA, June 2-4. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.
  • Bullough, J., H. Yan, and J. Van Derlofske. 2002. Effects of sweeping, color and luminance distribution on response to automotive stop lamps. SAE Technical Paper Series #(2002-01-0911).

2001

  • Bullough, J. D., M. S. Rea, R. M. Pysar, H. K. Nakhla and D. E. Amsler. 2001. Rear lighting configurations for winter maintenance vehicles. Proceedings of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Annual Conference, Ottawa, ON, August 5-8. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
  • Van Derlofske, J. 2001. Evaluation of Fabrication errors on the performance of injection molded light pipes (waveguides). SAE Technical Paper Series #(2001-01-0863).
  • Bullough, J. D., J. Van Derlofske, and H. Yen. 2001. Evaluation of automotive stop lamps using incandescent and sweeping neon and LED light source. SAE Technical Paper Series #(2001-01-0301).
  • Boyce, P., C. Hunter, and S. Vasconez. December 2001. An Evaluation of Three Types of Gas Station Canopy Lighting, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center.
  • Bullough, J. D. 2001. Lighting on snowplows: An accident countermeasure? American Public Works Association Reporter 68(10):24.
  • Daly, K. and J. D. Bullough. 2001. The long and lighted road: Lighting and driving. Lighting Futures 5(1).
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough, R. Lingard, and M. S. Rea. 2001. Roadway lighting: A systems approach. Proceedings of the 46th IESANZ Convention: 2001 - A Light Odyssey, Auckland, New Zealand: Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia and New Zealand.
  • Van Derlofske, J., J. D. Bullough, and C. M. Hunter. 2001. Evaluation of high-intensity discharge automotive forward lighting. 2001 PAL - Progress in Automobile Lighting Proceedings of the Symposium, September 25-26, 2001. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 9. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.
  • Van Derlofske, J. 2001. Computer modeling of LED light pipe systems for uniform display illumination. Proceedings of SPIE: Solid State Lighting and Displays, Bellingham, Washington: The International Society for Optical Engineering.
  • Bullough, J. D., J. Van Derlofske, and H. Yan. 2001. Evaluation of automotive stop lights using incandescent and sweeping neon and LED light sources. SAE 2001 World Congress; Lighting Technology developments for Automobiles (SP-1595), Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D., and M. S. Rea. 2001. Forward vehicular lighting and inclement weather conditions. 2001 PAL - Progress in Automobile Lighting Proceedings of the Symposium, September 25-26, 2001. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 9. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.
  • Bullough, J. D., and M. S. Rea. 2001. Driving in snow: Effect of headlamp color at mesopic and photopic light levels. SAE 2001 World Congress; Lighting Technology developments for Automobiles (SP-1595), Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
  • Bullough, J. D., M. C. Forget, S. Hayes, A. M. Gibeau, D. C. Frering, and M. G. Figueiro. 2001. A survey of local transportation agencies about LED traffic signals. Proceedings of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Annual Conference, Ottawa, ON, August 5-8. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
  • Bullough, J. D., P. R. Boyce, A. Bierman, C. M. Hunter, K. M. Conway, A. Nakata, and M. G. Figeiro. 2001. Traffic signal luminance and visual discomfort at night. Transportation Research Record 1754: 42-47.
  • Akashi, Y., and M. Rea. 2001. Peripheral detection while driving under a mesopic level. Proceedings of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Annual Conference, Ottawa, ON, August 5-8. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
  • Akashi, Y., and M. Rea. 2001. The effect of oncoming headlight glare on peripheral detection under a mesopic light level. 2001 PAL - Progress in Automobile Lighting Proceedings of the Symposium, September 25-26, 2001. Darmstädter Lichttechnik, no. 9. Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag Wissenschaft.

2000

  • Brandston, Howard, Peterson, Art J., Simonson, E. Kevin, Boyce, Peter R. July 31-August 2, 2000. A white-LED post-top luminaire for rural applications. IESNA Annual Conference Technical Papers 227-234
  • Van Derlofske, J. 2000. Computer modeling reduces headlamp glare. Optoelectronics World S5-S7.
  • Boyce, P.R., A. Bierman, B. C. Carter, J. Bullough, M. Figueiro, and K. Conway. 2000. The Color Identification of Traffic Signals, Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Lumileds, US LLC.; Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
  • A. Bierman, C. Hunter, J. Bullough, M. Figueiro, and K. Conway. 2000. The Effect of Rise Time on the Detection of Traffic Signals, Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Lumileds, US, LLC.; Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
  • J. Bullough, A. Bierman, K. Conway, C. Hunter, and A. Nakata. 2000. Traffic Signal Luminance and Visual Discomfort at Night, Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
  • Bullough, J. D., and M. S. Rea. 2000. Simulated driving performance and peripheral detection at mesopic and low photopic light levels. International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology 32(4):194-198.

1999 and older

  • Bullough, J., Boyce, P., Bierman, A., Conway, K., Huang, K., O'Rourke, C., Hunter, C., Nakata, A. September 27-28, 1999. Luminous intensity for traffic signals: A scientific basis for performance specifications. International Workshop on Co-operative Procurement: LED traffic signals
  • Goodspeed, C. H. and M. S. Rea. 1999. The significance of surround conditions for roadway signs. J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 28(1):164-173.
  • Conway, K. M. and J. D. Bullough. 1999. Will LEDs transform traffic signals as they did exit signs? Proceedings of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, August 9-11. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
  • Van Derlofske, J. F. 1999. Nonrotationally symmetric mirrors provide even light. Laser Focus World 35(7):S23-s26.
  • Bierman, A., and K. Daly. 1999. Energy efficiency and LEDs. IAEEL Newsletter 23(8):4-6.
  • Van Derlofske, J. F., D. D. Lamb, and L. W. Hillman. 1999. Stereolithography apparatus (SLA) prototyping of aspheric surfaces for automotive illumination. Papers of the Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Technical Paper Series, no. 1999-01-0302. Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Rea, Mark S. May 19-21, 1998 A proposed system of photometry in the mesopic region. Vision At Low Light Levels, the Fourth International Lighting Research Symposium 85-106
  • Lighting Research Center. 1998. Light-Emitting Diode Traffic Signals: A Review of Life Service Issues; Market Survey of California Transportation Agencies, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  • Van Derlofske, J. F., David J. Lamb, and L. D. Hillman. 1998. The use of aspheric surfaces in waveguide illumination systems for automotive displays. International Congress and Exposition. SAE Technical Papers Series, #(1999-01-0302). Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Bullough, J. 1998. Signaling the future. Lighting Futures 3(4).
  • Eklund, N. H., M. S. Rea, and J. Bullough. 1997. Survey of snowplow operators about forward lighting and visibility during nighttime operations. Transportation Research Record 1585:25-29.
  • Bullough, J., and M. S. Rea. 1997. Simple model of forward visibility for snowplow operators through snow and fog at night. Transportation Research Record 1585:19-24.
  • He, Y., Rea, M., Bierman, A., Bullough, J. Winter 1997. Evaluating light source efficacy under mesopic conditions using reaction times. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 26(1):125-138
  • Rea, Mark S. October 1996. Essay by invitation. Lighting Design + Application (LD+A) 26(10):15-16
  • Bullough, J., M. Rea, and N. Eklund.1996. Forward Lighting for Improved Visibility through Snow, Troy, New York: Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  • Van Derlofske, J. F., D. D. Lamb, and L. W. Hillman. 1996. Computer modeling of illumination systems for automotive displays. International Congress and Exposition. SAE Technical Paper Series, #(1996-0525). Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Hough, T. A., J. F. Van Derlofske, and L. W. Hillman. 1995. Measuring and modeling intensity distributions of light sources in waveguide illumination systems. Optical Illumination 34(3):819-823.
  • Hough, T. A., J. F. Van Derlofske, and L. W. Hillman. 1995. Implementation of radiometric modeling and measurement in the design of waveguide illumination systems for radio control panels. International Congress and Exposition. SAE Technical Paper Series, #(1995-0964). Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Van Derlofske, J. F., T. A. Hough, and L. W. Hillman. 1994. Development of design tools for modeling the illumination of automotive displays and instruments. International Congress and Exposition. SAE Technical Paper Series, #(1995-0511). Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Hough, T. A., J. F. Van Derlofske, and L. W. Hillman. 1994. Management of light in thick optical waveguides for dashboard illumination: An application of radiometric principles. International Congress and Exposition. SAE Technical Paper Series, #(1994-0512). Warrendale, PA: SAE International.
  • Boyce, P. R., and J. Fan. 1994. Drivers' headlight use: A lighting factoid. Light. Res. Tech. 26(1):23-27.
  • Davis, Robert G. December 1993. Understanding parking lot fixtures. LM&M (Lighting Management & Maintenance)
  • Boyce, P. R., and Y. Gu. 1992. Calculations of Visibility Levels and Reaction Times as a Function of Light Transmittance for Four Driving Scenarios, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center.
  • Rea, Mark. January 30, 1991. The CSF selection for automotive glazing study. 23. Progress report to MSR Scientific
  • Rea, Mark. March 1, 1991. The visibility of standard targets through tinted glazings Revision 1. 23 Progress report to MSR Scientific
  • Boyce, Peter R. December 1991. Security lighting: What we know and what we don't. Lighting Magazine
  • Gamliel, A., and G. Yuanchao. 1991. The Visibility through Tinted Automotive Glazings, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center.
  • Lighting Research Center. 1991. The CSF selection for automotive glazing study, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center.
  • Rea, M. S. 1989. Visibility criteria and application techniques for roadway lighting. Transportation Research Record 1247:12-16.
  • Boyce, P. R., R. W. Strobel, and J. M. Gutkowski. n. d. Visibility through Tinted Auto Glazing, Troy, NY: Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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