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11. References

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Bierman, A. 1995. Specifier Reports Supplements: Exit Signs (Supplement no. 1). Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Bierman, A. 1998a. Specifier Reports Supplements: Exit Signs (Supplement no. 2). Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Bierman, A. 1998b. LEDs: From indicators to illuminators? Lighting Futures, http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/Ltgtrans/led/leds.htm

Boyce, P. R. 1981. Human Factors in Lighting. London: Applied Science Publishers.

Boyce, P. R. 1994. Specifier Reports: Exit Signs. Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Conway, K. M., Y. He, P. R. Boyce and A. Bierman. 1997. Optimizing the use of LEDs in signs and signals for visually critical applications. CIE LED Tutorial Workshop and Symposium, Vienna, Austria, October 22-23. Vienna: Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage.

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Delean, P. 1996. Popular abroad, ignored at home: Lachine start-up's final frontier - Quebec. Montreal Gazette (November 13).

Haussler, A. 1997. New bulbs for traffic signals get green light. Arizona Republic (July 18).

Hodapp, M. W. 1997. Applications for high-brightness light-emitting diodes. In High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (G. Stringfellow and M. Craford, eds.). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Hoffman, M. S. 1990. World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York: Pharos Books.

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). 1993. Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application (M. Rea, ed.). New York, NY: IESNA.

Kiely, C. 1998. Green light for LEDs signalled: Solid state traffic lights may develop a market worldwide. Financial Times (January 13).

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Lundberg, F. 1997a. Costs of LED traffic lights cut by half. IAEEL Newsletter 19(6):16-17.

Lundberg, F. 1997b. World's largest order of LED traffic lights. IAEEL Newsletter 19(6):15.

Maranowski, S., M. Camras, C. Chen, L. Cook, M. Craford, D. DeFevere, R. Fletcher, G. Hofler, F. Kish, C. Kuo, A. Moll, T. Ostenkowski, K. Park, M. Peanasky, S. Rudaz, D. Steigerwald, F. Steranka, S. Stockman, I.-H. Tan, J. Tarn, J. Yu, M. Ludowise and V. Robbins. 1997. High-performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes. Proc. SPIE: Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing and Applications. San Jose, CA: International Society for Optical Engineering.

Nakamura, S. 1997. Present performance of InGan-based blue/green/yellow LEDs. Proc. SPIE: Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing and Applications. San Jose, CA: International Society for Optical Engineering.

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Snel, Alan. 1996. New traffic bulbs get green light: Cheaper, longer lasting devices installed in city. Denver Post (December 12).

Stahl, V. 1997. Talk about enlightenment: New stop light bulbs save energy, money. Kansas City Star (October 18).

Suozzo, M. 1998. A Market Transformation Opportunity Assessment for LED Traffic Signals. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

Vargas, D. 1994. Diode stoplights about to get the go in capital. Sacramento Bee (October 12).

Wyland, M. 1996. Update on LED traffic light technology. Energy Investments, Inc.

Wyszecki, G. and W. Stiles. 1982. Color Science. New York, NY: Wiley.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. TRAFFIC SIGNALS
3. CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
4. ENERGY
5. COST
6. VISIBILITY
7. OPERATION: POWER AND ENVIRONMENT
8. MARKET ISSUES: SUPPLY AND DEMAND
9. OTHER APPLICATIONS
10. PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
11. REFERENCES
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